Chapter four of African-American Art talks about many African- American artists from the 60’s and 70’s that expressed their political beliefs and human rights through their artworks. The beginning of the chapter states that the United States in 1960’s had “social disruption and violence” happened “as a result to two issues in particular: the failure to make progress on the integration of black Americans as equal citizens and the waging of an unpopular war in Vietnam.” (p.183) Many of the artists used these issues in their artworks and expressed their feelings and emotions towards the issues. For example, the chapter mentions many African-American artists that use the Civil Rights movement within their artworks to express “their political sentiments in art, for them race and politics were inextricably linked…” (p.190) On page 190, the artist Charles White is mentioned because he is an African American artist that used anger and showed homage to the children victims of a racial hate crime in Birmingham, Alabama in the 1960’s. This artist stuck out to me not only because he uses incidents from the civil rights movement within his artwork, but because he is one of the artists that I liked from the Chelsea Galleries in New York City. Other artist like Benny Andrews helped change the way African-American artwork was depicted. He was an activist and a painter that established the Black Emergency Cultural Coalition (BECC) in 1969. Andrews along with Cliff Joseph, “picketed the major art museums with other artists’ groups… to protest about the exclusion of racial and ethnic minorities from exhibitions and employment, and the under-representation of women.” (p.191) Andrew was an activist, but also a painter that reflected the social tensions within American during this time period. In his artwork the Champion, Andrew shows the strength of a black through painting a prizefighter. During this time, boxing was one of few professional sports which African Americans could play in. “Boxing… was seen as a means to escape poverty; boxers Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and Cassius Clay/Muhammad Ali became black heroes.”(p.192) Andrews didn’t want to be known as a “black artist”, but curators at the time would only consider his artworks dealing with black people for African-American exhibitions and none of his paintings he had done of whites. Overall, this chapter thus far has taught me a lot more about how African American artists were restricted throughout the Civil Rights period in time and how artwork and artists depicted this restriction in society.